Leiden University, The Netherlands


 Bart Custers 



Bart Custers PhD MSc LLB is research manager at eLaw, the Institute for Law in the Information Society at Leiden University, the Netherlands. With a background in both law and physics, his research is focused on discrimination and privacy issues of new technologies, particularly data mining and profiling. On a regular basis he gives lectures on profiling and privacy issues of new technological developments. He presented his work at international conferences in the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Lithuania and Malaysia. He has published his work, over 60 publications, in both scientific journals and newspapers.



  • Custers, B.H.M. (2012) Technology in Policing: Experiences, Obstacles and Police Need, Computer Law and Security Report. [Forthcoming]
  • Pedreschi, D., Calders, T., Custers, B., Domingo-Ferrer, J., Finocchiaro, G., Giannotti, F., Goodwin, M., Hildebrandt, M., Matwin, S., Saygin, Y., Schermer, B., Zarsky, T. (2011) Big Data Mining, Fairness and Privacy, Privacy Observatory Magazine, Issue 40. See http://www.privacyobservatory.org/

  • Prinsen, M.M. and Custers, B.H.M. (2010) Introduction to Forensics. In: Transnational Criminology Manual, Volume 3, M. Herzog-Evans (ed.), Tilburg: Wolf Legal Publishers, p. 15-34.
  • Custers B.H.M. (2010) Data Mining with Discrimination Sensitive and Privacy Sensitive Attributes. Proceedings of ISP 2010, International Conference on Information Security and Privacy, 12-14 July 2010, Orlando, Florida.
  • Custers, B.H.M., and Kuiper, A. (2010) Data on the Move – Privacy of Road Pricing, Journal of Navigation, Vol. 63, p. 51-59.
  • Vedder, A.H., and Custers, B.H.M. (2009) Whose responsibility is it anyway? Dealing with the consequences of new technologies. In P. Sollie & M. Düwell (Eds.), Evaluating new technologies: Methodological problems for the ethical assessment of technology developments (pp. 21-34). New York / Berlin: Springer. (The international library of ethics, law and technology, 3).


Bart Schermer

Bart Schermer is Assistant Professor at eLaw@Leiden, Centre for Law in the Information Society. He specializes in privacy aspects of new technologies including RFID and software agents. He has published research in this area in a number of peer-reviewed journals including Information and Communication Technology Law and Artificial Intelligence and Law. His most recent paper examines communities for legal knowledge dissemination. Prof. Schermer has considerable experience in leading and working within international research projects. He also provides consultancy services to government and commercial organisations.

•    SCHERMER, B.W., Privacy and Singularity: Little Ground for Optimism? In: Mommers, L., Franken, H., van den Herik, H.J., van der Klaauw, F.A.M, Zwenne, G.J. (Eds.), Het Binnenste Buiten, pp. 305-320. Leiden: E.M. Meijers Instituut voor Rechtswetenschappelijk onderzoek, 2010.

•    SCHERMER, B.W., Software Agents, Surveillance, and the Right to Privacy: a Legislative Framework for Agent-enabled Surveillance. Universiteit Leiden, 243pp. 2007


Simone van der Hof


 Simone’s particular academic interest is in the field of digital identities, digital child rights, (legal, social, technological) regulation of online child safety, empowerment of children, consumers and citizens through technology.

Currently, Simone is the project leader of a four year multidisciplinary project titled ‘Empowering and protecting children and adolescents against cyber- bullying’, commissioned by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) in collaboration with Amsterdam University and Delft University. Prior to this Simone was the project leader of a four year NWO commissioned research project on the impact of socio-legal developments on the construction and use of digital identities. Further work on digital identities was completed on behalf of the Dutch government and the Rathenau Institute (http://www.rathenau.nl/ en.html).

In 2004, Simone participated in a NWO project ‘Personalization of online public and private services’ this research touched upon issues such as the effect of profiling and stereotyping on fundamental values such as: privacy; autonomy; personal freedom; and non-discrimination. As a spinoff of the personalization project, Simone was project leader of ‘TAGGED’, a NWO-subsidized project in co-operation with the Waag Society, which consisted of workshops and public debate on the social, legal and ethical impact of tracking and tracing children/ adolescents and patients by means of novel technologies. Over the years, she has participated in numerous national and European research projects, including PRIME (Privacy and Identity Management for Europe), FIDIS (The Future of Identity in the Information Society), PRIMELIFE (Privacy and Identity Management in Europe for Life) and ENDORSE (Legal Technical Framework for Privacy Preserving Data Management).

For over 15 years Simone has been teaching legal issues in the field of ICT regulation (eg. digital identities and virtual worlds). In spring 2013, she will co-ordinate and teach the course ‘Regulating Online Child Safety’ in the Dutch Youth Law master at Leiden University.

Simone is part of the EU Kids Online III Dutch research team (http:// www2.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EUKidsOnline). In addition, she is a member of the research network on 'Entertainization of society' at the Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCOR), Amsterdam University. She is also a member of Cyren(-youth), which is the Cybersafety Research and Education Network (http://www.cybersafety.nl and http:// www.cyren-jeugd.nl). Simone is also a member of the Advisory Board of ThatIzMe, which develops privacy-friendly, online identity-management solutions for the public and private sector.

Project Coordinator
Professor Joe Cannataci
University of Groningen

Info Box
Start date: May 2010
End date: April 2013
Grant agreement No.: 244643
EU Contribution: 2,599,570 Euros

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